The Invisible Hand
Adam Smith returned to Scotland where he spent a decade writing what would become The Wealth of Nations. He realized that when people are free to pursue their self-interest it did not result in chaos. On the contrary, it was as if humans were guided by an “invisible hand” to maintain order and encourage prosperity. As people bargained and bartered for their own gain, a nation's productive capacity naturally adapted to meet the needs and desires of its people.
"It is not from the benevolence of the butcher, the brewer, or the baker, that we expect our dinner, but from their regard to their own interest. We address ourselves, not to their humanity but to their self-love, and never talk to them of our necessities but of their advantages."
Today we see that a prosperous society does not require control by a monarch or government to direct all aspects of its economy; in a free and competitive marketplace a nation's wealth grows and adjusts in harmony with the people's desires.